Elizabeth Bathory the Blood Countess
Elizabeth Bathory the Blood Queen
* August 7, 1560 - August 21, 1614 *
Elizabeth BÃ¡thory de Ecsed was a late 16th century Hungarian countess who became legend for her mass serial murders of her servants after which she would bathe in their virgin blood in order to retain her beauty and youth. (She was also known as the "Blood Countess", "Countess Dracula", or the "Blood Queen" and more accurately as BÃ¡thory ErzsÃ©bet in Hungarian and AlÅ¾beta BÃ¡toriovÃ¡ in Slovak) She, along with four collaborators, were accused of killing over 650 victims who were primary young female girl servants, but was only convicted for 80 of them, involving no trial or conviction. She's become the focus of vampire myth and legend, high in popularity with Vlad III the Impaler of Wallachia whom Bram Stoker's Dracula is based.
She was born to George and Anna Bathory in 1560 raised at the Ecsed Castle with links to the Voivod family of Transylvania. She was also the niece of Stefan Bathory, former King of Poland and Duke of Transylvania. She was raised very literate and scholarly, having been fluent with Latin, Greek, and German as well as being obsessed with the study of science and astronomy. She was a very knowledgable woman who often intervened on behalf of destitute women. In 1575 she wed Ferenc Nadasdy, potentially as a political arrangement, in the little palace of Varanno. They then moved to Nadasdy Castle in Sarvar, spending much of her time alone while her husband studied in Vienna as well as when in 1578 he became the chief commander of the Hungaran Troops during the war against the Ottamans. Her husband gifted her the Csejte Castle that is located in the Little Carpathians near Trencsen which came with a country house and 17 adjacent villages, agricultural lands, and outcrops of the Little Carpathians. While he was away at war, she managed the castle and estate affairs which involved providing food, sustainability, and medical care for the Hungarian and Slovak peasants. She had to defend her husband's estates that were on the route to Vienna during the height of the Long War which lasted from 1593 to 1606. This was a difficult feat as the castle and village previously had been plundered by the Ottamans. In 1585 she gave birh to her daughter Anna, then a second daughter named Ursula, and finally a son Tomas - both of whom died at a young age. In 1594 she gave birth to Katherine, then a son Paul in 1597, and finally Miklos. Her husband died in battle at the ripe age of 47 in 1604 C.E. It was shortly after his death that the local church and villagers began to complain about atrocities purportedly done by Elizabeth. Rumor had it that one of her handmaidens had accidentally cut herself and splattered blood on the countess. As the countess wiped off the blood she was impressed with the fact her skin looked younger, lighter, and rejuvenated beneath it. It was rumored then that she went on a murder spree killing her servants and bathing in their blood to become younger. It took the Hungarian authorities some time to respond and investigate the accusations. By 1610 she was under investigation of murder. Testimonies from over 300 witnesses it was proposed she had killed mainly the adolescent daughters of local peasants lured to work in the castle as maidservants, then she moved on to killing daughters of lesser gentry who were sent to the castle to learn courtly etiquette, and many others were believed to have been abducted with estimates of over 650 victims. Even with testimonials and minimal evidence, the government bypassed a trial and execution for fear of the public scandal it would cause the noble family (who at the time was ruling Transylvania) and would cause her property to become siezed by the crown. They debated sending her to a nunnery but realized she needed to be under strict house arrest and released King Matthias' debt to her. December 1610, the authorities arrested Bathory and four of her servants who were believed to be accomplices. They reportedly only found one girl dead, one girl dying, and another girl wounded with others locked up. King Matthias requested the death sentence for her, but again, for fear of affecting the noble family's reputation, was dismissed. Her associates were tried and punished in 1611 even though Bathory did not appear at the trial. Dorota SemtÃ©sz, Ilona JÃ³, and JÃ¡nos ÃšjvÃ¡ry were found guilty and served the death penality by having their fingers ripped from their hands before being burnt at the stake. Janos was beheaded before burnt at the stake as he was deemed least guilty. KatarÃna BenickÃ¡ was sentenced to life imprisonment as was only accused of dominating and bullying the other women. After these trials, Elizabeth was placed under house arrest and walled up in a set of rooms in the Csejte Castle of Slovakia where she remained for four years until she died. She was discovered dead on August 21, 1614 after several plates of food were discovered untouched. She was buried in the castle's churchyard but after villager outcry she was moved to Ecsed interred at the Bathory family crypt.
In addition to accusations of 650 deaths from 1585 to 1610 C.E., only 80 deaths were involved in conviction as Szentes and Janos reported 36 and 37 deaths respectively under their watch with other defendants stating 50+ victims, and other castle staff estimating 100-200 bodies removed from the castle, she was described to have committed:
severe beatings over extended periods of time that often lead to death
the burning or mutilation of hands, faces, and genitalia
The act of biting the flesh off the faces, arms and other body parts
freezing and starving victims to death
performing unnecessary surgery and use of needles on victims, much of which was fatal
Her victims were believed to have been buried in unmarked graves. She was believed to have killed her victims while at the Csejte castle, but also on the properties of SÃ¡rvÃ¡r, NÃ©metkeresztÃºr, Bratislava, Pozsony, Pressburg, and Vienna, as well as along the countryside inbetween the localities. Several individuals were accused of providing the Countess women procured by deception or force. The number of 650 victims was purportedly written in a book that the Countess logged them yet these diaries were never found. There are 32 letters written by the Countess that are archived in the Hungarian state archives at Budapest. Many believe that Elizabeth was a victim of a conspiracy and was innocent. The accusations came at a time when conflicts between religions and struggle of power of Habsburg over Hungary was occuring. Since she was a powerful Transylvanian Protestant aristocrat, she was opposed by the Habsburgs.
Her legends were first written about in 1729 by the Jesuit scholar LÃ¡szlÃ³ TurÃ³cziâ€™s Tragica Historia. It wasn't until 1817 when the witness accounts were published (which had surfaced in 1765) quoting the bloodbaths and vampiricy.